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Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, also known as SHBG, is an awesome little glycoprotein that most of us have never heard of. Since SHBH is related to testosterone and other sex hormones, many women remain in the dark about their SHBG status. But SHBG is an important biomarker for women to pay attention to! Read more to find out why.
What is Sex-Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG)?
SHBG is a glycoprotein, a molecule that consists of a carbohydrate plus a protein, and is produced mainly in your liver. It binds to three sex hormones found in both men and women: estrogen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and testosterone. It’s job is to transports these hormones throughout your blood to other tissues in your body. SHBG has a stronger affinity for DHT and testosterone (which are androgens), as compared to estrogens. It therefore plays a significant role in maintaining the delicate balance between estrogen and testosterone in a woman’s body.
Why are optimal levels of SHBG important for women?
What causes low SHBG levels in women?
SHBG levels decrease as a result of taking certain hormones, like androgens, anabolic steroids, and norethisterone-related synthetic progesterones. Certain conditions, like hypothyroidism, obesity, Cushing’s syndrome, and acromegaly (a condition where your body produces too much growth hormone), can also cause low SHBG levels. Interestingly, insulin resistance, even without obesity, results in lower SHBG levels.
Women with low levels of SHBGare more likely to have higher testosterone levels, which can lead to androgenization, i.e. the development of masculine characteristics. Low SHBH is often associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Other signs of low SHBG in women include: high levels of androgens, male-patterned hair growth or hair loss, menstrual irregularities, decreased breast tissue and skin abnormalities. Women with low SHBG are also at higher risk for developing cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome.
What causes high SHBG levels in women?
Compared to men, women naturally have higher levels of SHBG. The aging process, particularly for women, decreases SHBG levels, which means younger women tend to have higher SHBG levels than postmenopausal women. Pregnancy increases SHBG even further, as SHBG is actually produced in the placenta tissue. Some evidence suggests that continuous use of oral contraceptives can also increase your SHBG levels. Finally, undernourishment, as seen in anorexia nervosa, and estrogen or thyroid hormone treatment can cause higher than normal SHBG levels in women.
Women with high levels of SHBG have less available testosterone in their bodies. That’s bad news for any lady since testosterone (another biomarker measured by InsideTracker) plays a important role in maintaining energy levels, muscle development, bone health, and your sex drive!
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